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Trends and Statistics in EMS



Within the past few years, Emergency Management Systems (EMS) have improved by working closely with physicians to enhance cardiovascular pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. In training for EMS, a study by Böttiger et al. (2015) found that “EMS-physician-guided CPR was associated with significantly improved outcomes compared with paramedic-guided CPR,” [1]. The resuscitation estimates for “EMS-physician-guided CPR was 36.2%, and for paramedics was 23.4%,” [1]. This study also evaluated the survival-to-hospital rates when transporting patients to medical care facilities; “EMS-physician-guided CPR was 30.1%, and for paramedics was 19.2%,” [1]. The survival-to-hospital discharge rate for “EMS-physician-guided CPR was 15.1% and for paramedics was 8.4%,” [1]. Therefore, EMS-physician-guided CPR is more effective. Paramedics are trained to save lives. Knowing how to perform CPR effectively on people who need it to have a successful survival rate is crucial when going through CPR training. EMS has been managing acute diabetic emergencies before hyperglycemic patients reach hospitals. EMS has been targeting the diabetic population to be more accessible during emergencies. Using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) modeling process allows paramedics to have a 12-month forecast of future caseload with “high accuracy and predict increasing cases of prehospital diabetic emergencies,” [2]. This way EMS health services can plan effectively to prepare for an increase in the caseload of diabetic patients [2].


In 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, EMS responses decreased. A study by Satty et al. (2021) found that 16,082 EMS responses were reported in 2020 compared to the 21,881 cases per year from 2016 to 2019 [3]. In the study, “small increases in rates of tachycardia, tachypnea, and low oxygen saturation” in patients were present from transporting COVID-19 cases [3]. Overall, from 2019 to 2020 EMS responses, there was a 31% decrease in EMS transport responses [3]. According to the National EMS Information System, there was a 25% decrease in “EMS call rates between the 10th to 16th week of 2020,” [3]. An increase in conditions of “abnormal mental status, loss of consciousness, and advanced airway utilization” was reported in 2020 [3]. With stay-at-home orders in place in 2020, the decrease in outdoor activities “likely had an impact on the number of traumatic injuries seen,” [3]. The decrease in the need for EMS may have been affected by the “decrease in elective procedures and other routine care,” [3].


Over the years, EMS has been advancing in their training and efforts to service communities across the nation. In the United States, diabetic cases are rising. EMS plays an essential part in saving lives every day. Ensuring their accessibility to people who are in dangerous or life-threatening situations makes a deep impact on survival rates of patients admitted into hospitals and medical centers. People who have serious health conditions are affected. If one has serious cardiac or respiratory condition that is not well monitored by a primary care provider, one needs to be cautious of their health symptoms and progression of illness. EMS has been making improvements to better the health of every community. There should be no hesitation to call for guidance during time of emergency.

References:

1. Böttiger, B. W., Bernhard, M., Knapp, J., & Nagele, P. (2015). Influence of EMS-physician presence on survival after out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical Care, 20(1).


2. Villani, M., Earnest, A., Nanayakkara, N., Smith, K., de Courten, B., & Zoungas, S. (2017). Time series modelling to forecast prehospital EMS demand for diabetic emergencies. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1).


3. Satty, T., Ramgopal, S., Elmer, J., Mosesso, V. N., & Martin-Gill, C. (2021). EMS responses and non-transports during the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 42, 1–8.


 

Contributors:

Author: Dora Sow

Editor: Sara Giarnieri

Health scientist: Dora Sow


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